考研英语()真题及答案解析

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SectionIUseofEnglish

Directions:

Readthefollowingtext.Choosethebestword(s)foreachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET.(points)

deed,predictionshavebeenfortwodecadesbuthavenotyetcometofruition.Forexample,BusinessWeekpredictedinthatelectronicmeansofpaymentwouldsoonrevolutionizetheveryofmoneyitself,onlytoitselfseveralyearslater.Whyhasthemovementtoacashlesssocietybeensoincoming?

Althoughelectronicmeansofpaymentmaybemoreefficientthanapaymentssystembasedon,severalctorsworkthedisappearanceofthesystem.First,itisverytosetupthecomputer,cardreader,andtelecornmunicationsnetworksnecessarytomakeelectronicmoneytheformofpaymentSecond,checkshavetheadvantagethattheyreceipts,somethingthaimanyconsumersareunwillingto.Third,theuseofchecksgivesconsumersseveraldaysoffloat-ittakesseveraldaysacheckiscashedandfundsarefromtheissuersaccount,whichmeansthatthewriterofthecheckcancaminterestonthefundsinthemeantime.electronicpaymentsarcimmediate,theyeliminatethefloatfortheconsumer.

Fourth,electronicmeansofpaymentmaysecurityandprivacyconcerns.Weoftenhearmediareportsthatanunauthorizedhackerhasbeenabletoaccessacomputerdatabaseandtoalterinformationthere.Thectthatthisisnotanoccurrencemeansthatdishonestpersonsmightbeabletoaccessbankaccountsinelectronicpaymentssystemsandfromsomeoneelsesaccounts.Theofthistypeoffraudisnoeasytask,andanewfieldofcomputerscienceisdevelopingtosecurityissues.Afurtherconcernisthattheuseofelectronicmeansofpaymentleavesanelectronicthatcontainsalargeamountofpersonaldata.Thereareconcernsthatgovernment,employers,andmarketersmightbeabletoaccessthesedata,therebyviolatingourprivacy.

.[A]However[B]Moreover[C]Therefore[D]Otherwise

.[A]off[B]back[C]over[D]around

.[A]power[B]concept[C]history[D]role

.[A]reward[B]resist[C]resume[D]reverse

.[A]silent[B]sudden[C]slow[D]steady

.[A]for[B]against[C]with[D]on

.[A]imaginative[B]expensive[C]sensitive[D]productive

.[A]similar[B]original[C]temporary[D]dominant

.[A]collect[B]provide[C]copy[D]print

.[A]giveup[B]takeover[C]bringback[D]passdown

.[A]before[B]after[C]since[D]when

.[A]kept[B]borrowed[C]released[D]withdrawn

.[A]Unless[B]Until[C]Because[D]Though

.[A]hide[B]express[C]raise[D]ease

.[A]analyzed[B]shared[C]stored[D]displayed

.[A]unsafe[B]unnatural[C]uncommon[D]unclear

.[A]steal[B]choose[C]benefit[D]return

.[A]consideration[B]prevention[C]manipulation[D]justification

.[A]copewith[B]fightagainst[C]adaptto[D]callfor

.[A]chunk[B]chip[C]path[D]trail

SectionIIReadingComprehension

PartA

Directions:

Readthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET.(points)

Text

Inanessayentitled“MakingItinAmerica”,theauthorAdamDavidsonrelatesajokefromcottonaboutjusthowmuchamoderntextilemillhasbeenautomated:Theaveragemillonlytwoemployeestoday,”amanandadog.Themanistheretofeedthedogistheretokeepthemanawayfromthemachines.”

Davidson’sarticleisoneonumberofpiecesthathaverecentlyappearedthepointthatthereasonwehavesuchstubbornlyhighunemploymentanddecliningmiddle-classincomestodayisalsobecauseoftheadvancesinbothglobalizationandtheinformationtechnologyrevolution,whicharemorerapidlythaneverreplacinglaborwithmachinesorforeignworker.

Inthepast,workerswithaverageskills,doinganaveragejob,couldearnanaveragelifestyle,But,today,averageisofficiallyover.Beingaveragejustwon’tearnyouwhatitusedto.Itcan’twhensomanymoreemployershavesomuchmoreaccesstosomuchmoreaboveaveragecheapforeignlabor,cheaprobotics,cheapsoftware,cheapautomationandcheapgenius.Therefore,everyoneneedstofindtheirextra-theiruniquevaluecontributionthatmakesthemstandoutinwhateveristheirfieldofemployment.

Yes,newtechnologyhasbeeneatingjobsforever,andalwayswill.Butthere’sbeenanacceleration.AsDavidsonnotes,”Intheyearsendingin,[U.S.]ctoriesshedworkerssostthattheyerasedalmostallthegainsofthepreviousyears;roughlyoneoutofeverythreemanucturingjobs-aboutmillionintotal-disappeared.

Therewillalwaysbechanged-newjobs,newproducts,newservices.ButtheonethingweknowforsureisthatwitheachadvanceinglobalizationandtheI.T.revolution,thebestjobswillrequireworkerstohavemoreandtereducationtomakethemselvesaboveaverage.

Inaworldwhereaverageisofficiallyover,therearemanythingsweneedtodotosupportemployment,butnothingwouldbemoreimportantthanpassingsomekindofG.I.BillforthestcenturythatensuresthateveryAmericanhasaccesstopoet-highschooleducation.

.ThejokeinParagraphisusedtoillustrate_______

[A]theimpactoftechnologicaladvances

[B]thealleviationofjobpressure

[C]theshrinkageoftextilemills

[D]thedeclineofmiddle-classincomes

.AccordingtoParagraph,tobeasuccessfulemployee,onehasto______

[A]workoncheapsoftware

[B]askforamoderatesalary

[C]adoptanaveragelifestyle

[D]contributesomethingunique

.ThequotationinParagraphexplainsthat______

[A]gainsoftechnologyhavebeenerased

[B]jobopportunitiesaredisappearingatahighspeed

[C]ctoriesaremuchlessmoneythanbefore

[D]newjobsandserviceshavebeenoffered

.Accordingtotheauthor,toreduceunemployment,themostimportantis_____

[A]toacceleratetheI.T.revolution

[B]toensuremoreeducationforpeople

[C]roadvanceeconomicglobalization

[D]topassmorebillsinthestcentury

.Whichofthefollowingwouldhemostappropriatetitleforthetext?

[A]NewLawTakesEffect

[B]TechnologyGoesCheap

[C]AverageIsOver

[D]RecessionIsBad

Text

Acenturyago,theimmigrantsfromacrosstheAtlanticincluedsettlersandsojourners.AlongwiththemanyfolkslookingtomakeapermanenthomeintheUnitedStatescamethosewhohadnointentiontostay,andmillinpeoplearrivedwhileaboutmilliondeparted.AboutaquarterollItalianimmigrants,forexanmle,eventuallyreturnedtoItalyforgood.Theyevenhadanaffectionatenickname,“uccellidipassaggio,”birdsofpassage.

Today,wearemuchmorerigidaboutimmigrants.Wedividenemcomersintotwocategories:legalorillegal,goodorbad.WehailthemasAmericansinthe,orourbrokenimmigrantionsystemandthelongpoliticalparalysisoverhowtofixit.Wedon’tneedmorecategories,butweneedtochangethewaywethinkaboutcategories.Weneedtolookbeyondstrickdefinitionsoflegalandillegal.Tostart,wecanrecognizethenewbirdsofpassage,thoselivingandthrivinginthegrayareas.Wemightthenbegintosolveourimmigrationchallenges.

Croppickers,violinists,constructionworkers,entrepreneurs,engineers,homehealth-careaidesandphysicistsareamongtoday’sbirdsofpassage.Theyareenergeticparticipantsinaglobaleconomydrivenbytheflowofwork,moneyandideas.Theyprefertocomeandgoasopportunitycallsthem,Theycanmanagetohaveajobinoneplaceandamilyinanother.

Withorwithoutpermission,theystraddlelaws,jurisdictionsandidentitieswithease.WeneedthemtoimaginetheUnitedStatesasaplacewheretheycanbeproductiveforawhilewithoutcommittingthemselvestostayingforever.Weneedthemtofeelthathomecanbebothhereandthereandthattheycanbelongtotwonationshonorably.

Accommodatingthisnewworldofpeopleinmotionwillrequirenewattitudesonbothsidesoftheimmigrationbattle.Lookingbeyondtheculturewarlogicofrightorwrongmeansopeningupthemiddlegroundandunderstandingthatmanagingimmigrationtodayrequiresmultiplepathsandmultipleoutcomes.Includingsomethatarenoteasytoaccomplishlegallyintheexistingsystem.

“Birdsofpassage”referstothosewho____

[A]immigrateacrosstheAtlantic.

[B]leavetheirhomecountriesforgood.

[C]stayinaforegintemporaily.

[D]findpermanentjobsoverseas.

ItisimpliedinparagraphthatthecurrentimmigrationstystemintheUS____

[A]needsnewimmigrantcategories.

[B]hasloosenedcontroloverimmigrants.

[C]shouldbeadoptedtomeetchallenges.

[D]hasbeenfixeedviapoliticalmeans.

Accordingtotheauthor,today’sbirdsofpassagewant___

[A]fiancialincentives.

[B]aglobalrecognition.

[C]opportunitiestogetregularjobs.

[D]thefreedomtostayandleave.

Theauthorsuggeststhatthebirdsofpassagetodayshouldreated__

[A]asithfulpartners.

[B]witheconomicvors.

[C]withregaltolerance.

[D]asmightyrivals.

选出最适文章的标题

[A]comeandgo:bigmistake.

[B]livingandthriving:greatrisk.

[C]withorwithout:greatrisk.

[D]legalorillegal:bigmistake.

Text

Scientistshavefoundthatalthoughwearepronetosnapoverreactions,ifwetakeamomentandthinkabouthowwearelikelytoreact,wecanreduceoreveneliminatethenegativeeffectsofourquick,hard-wiredresponses.

Snapdecisionscanbeimportantdefensemechanisms;ifwearejudgingwhethersomeoneisdangerous,ourbrainsandbodiesarehard-wiredtoreactveryquickly,withinmilliseconds.Butweneedmoretimetoassessothectors.Toaccuratelytellwhethersomeoneissociable,studiesshow,weneedatleastaminute,preferablyfive.Ittakesawhiletojudgecomplexaspectsofpersonality,likeneuroticismoropen-mindedness.

Butsnapdecisionsinreactiontorapidstimuliaren’texclusivetotheinterpersonalrealm.PsychologistsattheUniversityofTorontofoundthatviewingast-foodlogoforjustafewmillisecondsprimesustoreadpercentster,eventhoughreadinghaslittletodowitheating.Weunconsciouslyassociatestfoodwithspeedandimpatienceandcarrythoseimpulsesintowhateverelsewe’redoing,Subjectposedtost-foodflashesalsotendtothinkamusicalpiecelaststoolong.

Yetwecanreversesuchinfluences.Ifweknowwewilloverreacttoconsumerproductsorhousingoptionswhenweseeahappyce(onereasongoodsalesrepresentativesandrealestateagentsarealwayssmiling),wecantakeamomentbeforebuying.Ifweknowfemalejobscreenersaremorelikelytorejectattractivefemaleapplicants,wecanhelpscreenersunderstandtheirbiases-orhireoutsidescreeners.

JohnGottman,themarriageexpert,explainsthatwequickly“thinslice”informationreliablyonlyafterwegroundsuchsnapreactionsin“thicksliced”long-termstudy.WhenDr.Gottmanreallywantstoassesswhetheracouplewillstaytogether,heinvitesthemtohisislandretreatforamucklongerevaluation;twodays,nottwoseconds.

Ourabilitytomuteourhard-wiredreactionsbypausingiswhatdifferentiatesusfromanimals:dogecanthinkaboutthefutureonlyintermittentlyorforafewminutes.Buthistoricallywehavespentaboutpercentofourdayscontemplatingthelongerterm.Althoughtechnologymightchangethewaywereact,ithasn’tchangedournature.Westillhavetheimaginativecapacitytoriseabovetemptationandreversethehigh-speedtrend.

.Thetimeneededindecisionsmay____.

[A]varyaccordingtotheurgencyofthesituation

[B]provethecomplexityofourbrainreaction

[C]dependontheimportanceoftheassessment

[D]predeterminetheaccuracyofourjudgment

.Ourreactiontoast-foodlogoshowsthatsnaodecisions____.

[A]canbeassociative

[B]arenotunconscious

[C]canbedangerous

[D]arenotimpulsive

.Toreversethenegativeinfluencesofsnapdecisions,weshould____.

[A]trustourfirstimpression

[B]doaspeopleusuallydo

[C]thinkbeforeweact

[D]askforexpertadvice

.JohnGottmansaysthatreliablesnapreactionarebasedon____.

[A]criticalassessment

[B]‘‘thinsliced’’study

[C]sensibleexplanation

[D]adequateinformation

.Theauthor’sattitudetowardreversingthehigh-speedtrendis____.

[A]tolerant

[B]uncertain

[C]optimistic

[D]doubtful

Text

Europeisnotagender-equalityheaven.Inparticular,thecorporateworkplacewillneverbecompletelymily—friendlyuntilwomenarepartofseniormanagementdecisions,andEurope,stopcorporate-governancepositionsremainoverwhelminglymale.indeed,womenholdonlypercentofpositionsonEuropecorporateboards.

styear,EuropeCommissionVicePresidentVivianeRedingissuedacalltovoluntaryaction.Redinginvitedcorporationstosignupforgenderbalancegoalofpercentfemaleboardmembership.Butherappealwasconsideredailure:onlycompaniestookitup.

DoweneedquotastoensurethatwomencancontinuetoclimbthecorporateLaddeiryastheybalanceworkandmily?

“Personally,Idon’tlikequotas,”Redingsaidrecently.“Butilikewhatthequotasdo.”Quotasgetaction:they“openthewaytoequalityandtheybreakthroughtheglassceiling,”accordingtoReding,aresultseeninFranceandothercountrieswithlegallybindingprovisionsonplacingwomenintopbusinesspositions.

IunderstandReding’sreluctance-andherfrustration.Idon’tlikequotaseither;theyruncountertomybeliefinmeritocracy,governmentbythecapable.Bur,whenoneconsiderstheobstaclestoachievingthemeritocraticideal,itdoeslookasiirerworldmustemporarilyordered.

Afterall,fourdecadesofevidencehasnowshownthatcorporationsinEuropeastheUSareevadingthemeritocratichiringandpromotionofwomentotopposition—nomatterhowmuch“softpressure”isputuponthem.Whenwomendobreakthroughtothesummitofcorporatepower--as,forexample,SherylSandbergrecentlydidatFacebook—theyattractmassiveattentionpreciselybecausetheyremaintheexceptiontotherule.

Ippropriatepubicpolicieswereinplacetohelpallwomen---whetherCEOsortheirchildren’scaregivers--andallmilies,Sandbergwouldbenomorenewsworthythananyotherhighlycapablepersonlivinginamorejustsociety.

.IntheEuropeancorporateworkplace,generally_____.

[A]womentakethelead

[B]menhavethefinalsay

[C]corporategovernanceisoverwhelmed

[D]seniormanagementismily-friendly

.TheEuropeanUnion’sintendedlegislationis________.

[A]areflectionofgenderbalance

[B]areluctantchoice

[C]aresponsetoReding’scall

[D]avoluntaryaction

.AccordingtiReding,quotasmayhelpwomen______.

[A]gettopbusinesspositions

[B]seethroughtheglassceiling

[C]balanceworkandmily

[D]anticipatelegalresults

.Theauthor’sattitudetowardReding’sappealisoneof_________.

[A]skepticism

[B]objectiveness

[C]indifference

[D]approval

.Womenenteringtopmanagementbecomeheadlinesduetothelackof______.

[A]moresocialjustice

[B]massivemediaattention

[C]suitablepublicpolicies

[D]greater“softpressure”

PartB

Directions:

Youaregoingtoreadalistofheadingsandatext.ChoosethemostsuitableheadingfromthelistA-Fforeachnumberedparagraph(-).MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET.(points)

[A]Livelikeapeasant

[B]Balanceyourdiet

[C]Shopkeepersareyourfriends

[D]Remembertotreatyourself

[E]Sticktowhatyouneed

[F]Planningisevervthing

[G]Wastenot,wantnot

ThehugelypopularblogtheSkintFoodiechronicleshowTonybalanceshisloveofgoodfoodwithlivingonbenefits.Afterbills,Tonyhas?aweektospend,?ofwhichgoesonfood,butyearsagohewasearning?,aIyearworkingincorporatecommunicationsandeatingatLondonsftrestaurantsatleasttwiceaweek.Thenhismarriageiled,hiscareerburnedoutandhisdrinkingbecameserious.Thecommunitymentalhealthteamsavedmylife.AndIfeltlikethatagain,toacertaindegree,whenpeoplerespondedtotheblogsowell.ItgavemethevalidationandconfidencethatIdlost.Butitsstilladay-by-daything.Nowheslivinginacouncilflatandfieldingoffersfromliteraryagents.Hesfeelingpositive,buthellcarryonblogging-notabouteatingascheaplyasyoucan-therearesomanypeopleinamuchworsestate,withbarelyanymoneytospendonfood-buteatingwellonabudget.Hereshisadviceforeconomicalfoodies.

._____________________

Impulsivespendingisntanoption,soplanyourweeksmenuinadvance,shoppinglistsforyouringredientsintheirexactquantities.IhaveanExceltemplateforaweekofbreakst,lunchanddinner.Stoplaughing:itsnotjustcosteffectivebuthelpsyoubalanceyourdiet.Itsalsoagoodideatoshopdailyinsteadofweekly,because,being-human,youllsometimeschangeyourmindaboutwhatyouncy.

____________________________________________________________

Thisiswheresupermarketsandthci;anonymitycomeinhandy.Withthem,

theresnotthesameembarrassmentaswhenbuyingonecarrotinalittle

greengrocer.Andifyouplanproperly,youllknowthatyouonlyneed,say,g

ofshinofbeendsixrashersofbacon,notwhateverweightispre-packedinthe

supermarketchiller.

_________

Youmayproudlyclaimtoonlyhavefrozenpeasinthefreezer-thatsnot

goodenough.Mineisfilledwithleftovers,bread,stock,meatandfish.Planning

aheadshouldeliminatewastage,butifyouhavesurplusvegetablesyoulldoa

vegetablesoup,andallfruitsthreateningtogooffwillbecookedorjuiced.

___________________________________

Everyonesaysthis,butitreallyisatoptipforfrugaleaters.Shopatbutchers,

delisandfish-sellersregularly,evenforsmallthings,andbesuperfriendly.Soon

youllfeelcomfortableaskingiftheyveanyknucklesofhamforsoupsandstews,

orbeefbones,chickencarcassesandfishheadsforstockwhich,moreoftenthan

not,Theyilletyouhaveforfree.

__________________

Youwontbeeatingoutalot,butsaveyourpenniesandonceeveryfew

monthstreatyourselftoasetlunchatagoodrestaurant-?.aweekforthree

monthsgivesyou?-morethanenoughforathree-courselunchat

Michelin-starredArbutus.Its?.there-or?.foralargepizzafrom

Dominos:IknowwhichIdrathereat.

SectionIIITranslation

Directions:

TranslatethefollowingtextfromEnglishintoChinese.WriteyourtranslationonANSWERSHEET.(points)

IcanpickadatefromthepastyearsandknowinstantlywhereIwas,whathappenedinthenewsandeventhedayoftheweek.I’vebeenabletodothissinceIwasfour.

Ineverfeeloverwhelmedwiththeamountofinformationmybrainabsorbsmymindseemstobeabletocopeandtheinformationisstoredawayreatly.WhenIthinkosadmemory,Idowhateveryonedoes-trytoputittooneside.Idon’tthinkit’sharderformejustbecausemymemoryisclearer.Powerfulmemorydoesn’tmakemyemotionsanymoreactureorvivid.IcanrecallthedaymygrandtherdiedandthesadnessIfeltwhenwewenttothehosptibalthedaybefore.IalsorememberthatthemusicalpalyHamopenedontheBroadwayonthesameday-theybothjustpopintomymindinthesameway.

SectionIVWriting

.Supposeyourclassistoholdacharitysalefoekidsinneedofhelp.Writeyourclassmatesanemailto

)informthemaboutthedetailsandencouragethemtoparticipate.

)Don’tuseyourownname,use“LiMing”instead.Don’twriteyouraddress.(points)

writeanessaybasedonthefollowingchart.Inyourwriting,youshould

)interpretthechartand

)giveyourcomments

YoushouldwriteaboutwordsontheANSWERSHEET.

试题解析

SectionIUseofEnglish

.【答案】A(However)

【解析】空前作者讲到“鉴于电子货币的优势,你也许会认为,我们将快速步入非社会,实现完全电子支付。”而空后说“真正的无社会很可能不会马上到来”这两句话语义是转折的,因此答案A。B.moreover表递进C.therefore表结果D.Otherwise表对比

.【答案】D(around)

【解析】由空格所在句的“but”得知,句子前后是转折关系。事实上,这样的预测已经了,但迄今还没有实现。A.off停止B.back返回C.over结束,与后文均不构成转折,故答案选D.around出现。

.【答案】B(concept)

【解析】空格所在的句子意思为例如,《商业周刊》预测电子支付手段不久将“彻底改变货币本身的____”将个选项带入,能够彻底改变的对象只能是的概念(定义),而A“力量”,C“历史”,D“角色”,语义都不恰当,并且如果选择role的话,应该是复数roles,因为是的作用不止个,故答案选B。

.【答案】D(reverse)

【解析】空格填入的动词跟前面的动词revolutionize(变革)意思上应该是同义替换的,要选择含有变革,彻底改变意思的词汇,个选项中A.reward励B.抵抗C.resume重新开始,继续,都不适,只有D选项reverse“”最为贴切,本句译为“电子支付方式不久将改变货币的定义,并将在数后货币本身。”

.【答案】C(slow)

【解析】根据前面的句意得知,早在就预测了无社会将到来,而实际上作者讲到“真正的无社会很可能不会马上到来”,因此也得出这种变革是个缓慢的过程,故答案选择C。A.silent沉寂的,B.sudden突然的,D.steady稳定不变的。

.【答案】B(against)

【解析】上段末句提出本段的论点,即人们进入无时代的速度缓慢的原因。因此本段应围绕纸币系统不会消失来阐述。而且由句首的Although得知,空格所在句与前句是转折关系。尽管电子支付手段可能比纸币支付方式更加高效,然而以下几个方面解释了纸币系统“不会”消失的原因,故答案选B,workagainst妨碍,对…产生消极影响。A.workfor为…而工作C.workwith与…共事,对…起作用D.workon从事…工作,对…起作用,都不适。

.【答案】B(expensive)

【解析】本句陈述的原因都是关于上句提到的传统支付方式的优点,即推广电子支付方式不利之处。所以根据这个基调,得出选项productive不对,最后根据空后的内容推理出消极意思的选项expensive,其他选项意思放到空格处不理,imaginative,意思是“虚构的、富于想象力的”;sensitive,意思是“的、容易受伤的”。故本题正确答案为B。

.【答案】D(dominant)

【解析】空格所在句译为...使得电子货币成为____支付方式,将个选项带入,C,D是比较恰当的,再结本文章的主旨,应该选择“占主导地位的,支配地位”这层意思的D选项。A.similar相似的B.original原始的,独创的,都不适。

.【答案】B(provide)

【解析】纸质支票支付能够____收据,这是和电子支付相比的大优势,A.collect收集收据,C.copy复印收据,D.print打印收据都和实际生活不符。应该是B.provide提供收据。

.【答案】A(giveup)

【解析】该动词短语的宾语是前文的something,指代上文的advantage,纸质支票支付能够提供收据这优势,肯定是消费者不愿放弃的。和优势相搭配的动词短语不能是B.takeover接管,也不能是C.bringback拿回来,D.passdown传递、遗传也不符。A.giveup放弃种优势,符语境,为正确答案。

.【答案】A(before)

【解析】这里考查的是连词的应用。句子意思是“在支票兑换成之前要花上好几天”,符句意的只有before,其它项都不符。

.【答案】D(withdrawn)

【解析】这里考查动词辨义。原文句子意思是“资金是从发卡机构的账户里提取的”,withdraw有“提款、取款”的意思,这里是指纸币从银行账户中“被取出”故为正确答案。

.【答案】C(Because)

【解析】这里考查的是连词的应用。从原文可以看出空后的两个句子在意思上存在着关系,“因为电子支付是即付的,所以消除了客户的付款”。个选项中只有Cbecause可以表,其他项均不能表。故答案为C。

.【答案】C(raise)

【解析】这里考查的是动词辨析以及上下文语义衔接。[A]hide“隐藏,隐瞒”,[B]express“表达,表示”,[C]raise“举起,提高,引发”,[D]ease“减轻,缓和”,个选项中能和concerns构成搭配的只有raise,故正确答案为[C]。

.【答案】C.(stored)

【解析】这句讲了anunauthorizedhackerhasbeenabletoaccessacomputerdatabaseandtoalterinformation__________there.“些黑客入侵电脑数据库并且更改_____信息”根据空前信息可知是入侵电脑数据库,所以information是被储存在电脑数据库中的信息。

.【答案】C.(uncommon)

【解析】此题考查致性。空格所在句“Thectthatthisisnotan___occurrencemeansthat…”中this指代上文中that从句的内容,即黑客能够获取电脑数据库和更改储存的信息。因此notan__occurrence应该能体现这行为的特征,而上文提到“Weoftenhearmediareportsthat…”,其中的often正是对这行为的特征解释,即notan__occurrence等于often的含义,对比选项,只有C选项uncommon符,带入后意为“经常发生的事情”。

.【答案】A(steal)

【解析】本题缺少谓语动词,通过语法结构可以看出,主语是dishonestpersons,并通过后面的其他人的帐户,可以推定为答案是负向的,只有Asteal符题意,语义上也说得通,故为正确答案。

.【答案】B.(prevention)

【解析】文章最后段首句谈论电子付费方式的又个缺陷:会引起安全和隐私问题。接下来就开始解释这个现象。空格所在句提到“对这种欺诈的___绝非易事,而且个新的电脑科学领域正在形成来___安全问题。”因此,本句在谈论对问题的解决应对。空格与空格所填内容语意上应该是致的。浏览选项,空只能选prevention,即防止这种欺诈行为发生并非易事,而C选项manipulation是“”的意思,D选项justification意为“解释,证明……理”,均不理。

.【答案】A.(copewith)

【解析】此空格解释同空格,应选有“处理,解决”意思的选项,只有A选项copewith适。B选项fightagainst意为“对抗,抵制”,而宾语是securityissues,因此不符。

.【答案】D.(trail)

【解析】此空所在句提出了使用电子付费方式的又个担心,即会留下___,空格后的定语从句解释了空格内容,即它包含大量个人数据。浏览选项,只有trail符,意为“痕迹”。B碎片从语义上均说不通,C径有定的干扰性,但相比较D而言,痕迹更为适,故为正确答案

SectionIIReadingComprehension

PartA

Text

.【答案】A

【解析】第段第行指出笑话是关于纺织厂自动化程度的,后句具体说明了笑话的内容:工厂平均每天只有两个人,人狗。人的工作是喂狗,狗的工作是看机器,暗示了工厂所有的生产工作都是由机器自动完成的。因此,这个笑话是用来说明技术进步的影响,故选A。

.【答案】D

【解析】事实细节题,通过题干“根据第段,要想成为个成功的雇员,个人得……”,我们首先可以定位到文章第段,由第段的最后句话“Therefore,everyoneneedstofindtheirextra-theiruniquevaluecontributionthatmakesthemstandoutinwhateveristheirfieldofemployment.”意思是“因此,人人都需要有另外的价值,异于的独特价值能够让他们在各自的雇佣市场上脱颖而出。”,我们可以得出,题干中“tobeasuccessfulemployee”与第段的最后句话中的“thatmakesthemstandoutinwhateveristheirfieldofemployment”是同义替换,“everyoneneedstofindtheirextra-theiruniquevaluecontribution”与D选项中的“contributesomethingunique”是同义替换,所以D选项正确。

A、B两个选项与第段的倒数第句话意思不符,是干扰选项。C选项与第段的第、句话意思相反,重点关注的是“But,today,averageisofficiallyover.”,意思是“现如今,拥有般水平不行了。”

.【答案】B

【解析】根据题干定位到第段,第句technologyhasbeeneatingjobs(技术使工作机会减少)也反映了该段的主旨。而根据题干quotation词,我们读到引里有“shedworkers(解雇工人)”、“roughlyoneoutofeverythreemanucturingjobs-aboutmillionintotal-disappeared(大约/的手工生产工作机会消失,总计百万)”,可推断出B选项。

.【答案】B

【解析】细节题。根据题干reduceunemployment减少失业,可以定位到文章中最后段,这段出现了与之类似的表达“supportemployment”促进就业,而题干表述“themostimportant”与文章“nothingwouldbemoreimportantthan”相对应,指出促进就业最重要的是颁布类似于“G.I.Bill”的法案来保障人们接受高等教育的,选项C与之吻,故正确。A项加速信息技术产业变革,C项促进经济全球化,均未提及,故排除。D项是干扰项,虽提及要颁布更多法案,但颁布法案的目的实际是为了保障教育,故也排除。

.【答案】C

【解析】该题是主旨大意题,主要考查考生根据文章内容凝练主旨大意的能力。从整个文章的脉络来看,第段以亚当?大卫森篇论文中关于现代工厂自动化与仅需要人狗两个员工的则笑话,了科技进步给人们带来的影响。第段是科技的进步引起工厂自动化水平提高,普通员工如果没有竞争力和突出优势,就很容易失去工作,因此也对员工提出了更高的要求(extra-uniquevaluecontribution)。第段就是员工只有不断地提高自己的教育水平,才能让自己脱颖而出(tohavemoreandtereducationtomakethemselvesaboveaverage)。最后段点明主题,averageisofficiallyover。由此可见,全文直在围绕这宏观主线展开,这主线也统领全文,所以正确答案为C。

Text

.【答案】C(stayinaforeigntemporarily)

【解析】词义句意题。根据题干,首先定位到首段末句。在这句中,birdsofpassage是前面句中的/的意大利移民的昵称,他们只在美国居住了段,但最终还是返回意大利。A项的内容在首段首句有提及,但是它突出强调的是横跨大西洋的移民,这也是世纪前的情况,而如今birdsofpassage可能来自世界各个角落,并非局限于大西洋两岸。B项与段意不符,D项文中未提及。

.【答案】C(shouldbeadoptedtomeetchallenges)

【解析】推理判断题。根据题干,直接定位到第段。解题关键可定位到“…,butweneedtochangethewaywethinkaboutcategories.Weneedtolookbeyondstickdefinitionsoflegalandillegal.Tostart,wecanrecognizethenewbirdsofpassage,…Wemightthenbegintosolveourimmigrationchallenges.”大意是“我们需要改变的是关于分类的思考方式,突破和非法的严格。首先承认短暂移民者的存在,然后解决移民问题面临的挑战。”C项高度总结了以上几点。A项与原文意思不符。B、D项在文中未提及。

.【答案】D(thefreedomtostayandleave)

【解析】事实细节题。根据题干,可定位到第段。解题关键在于对“Theyprefertocomeandgoasopportunitycallsthem.Theycanmanagetohaveajobinoneplaceandamilyinanother.”大意是“他们跟着机会走,来去自如。他们可以在个地方立业,在另个地方成家”。强调的是工作机会,而不在乎工作地点。D项是这句意思的高度概括。A项是对原文的片面理解,吸引短暂移民者的不仅仅是来自的激励(financialincentives),还有工作机会和工作。B项在文中未提及。C项中的regularjobs(般工作)在文中未提及,也是对文意的曲解。

.【答案】C(withlegaltolerance)

【解析】推理判断题。根据题干,可定位到第段。题干问到“根据作者的意思,我们(美国)应该怎样对待这些短暂移民者?”在本段中,作者写道我们应该“Lookingbeyondtheculturewarlogicofrightorwrongmeansopeningupthemiddlegroundandunderstandingthatmanagingimmigrationtodayrequiresmultiplepathsandmultipleoutcomes.Includingsomethatarenoteasytoaccomplishlegallyintheexistingsystem”,大意是“我们应该超越移民性方面的文化之争,重现看待中间地段,充分意识到当今的移民管理体系需要各种途径,从而取得多样化的结果,来解决现今移民体系下用法律手段很难解决的问题”,暗含了C项中的tolerance也就是对multiplepathsandmultipleoutcomes的改写。A、B和D项在文中未提及。

.【答案】D(legalorillegal:bigmistake)

【解析】主旨大意题。文章第段第句中提到“我们把新移民分成两类:移民和不移民”,同时作者认为“我们不需要局限于与不这样严格的定义”,这说明了从和不角度对于移民的分类是错误的。另外,文章最后段最后句“包括在现行的移民体系中不容易的实现的些事情”也反映了文章的中心。即,从和不角度对于移民的分类是错误的。故选D(或非法:大错误)。A项谈到短暂移民者的移动是个错误,偏离了文章主旨。B和C项说的是risk(风险),文中并未提及,偏离文章主旨。

Text

.【答案】[D]predeterminetheaccuracyofourjudgment

【解析】细节题。题干问的是“作决定过程中所需的可以_____”。文章第段提到“如果我们在做出反应之前花点儿来思考,那么将会减少甚至消除我们快速反应所带来的负面影响”,也就是说我们做决定所花的决定了我们判断的准确性。文章第段第句话也隐含本题正确答案线索。第句以But这转折连词引导,应该重点关注其后表达的信息,“但是,我们需要更多的来评估其他要素。”而本段的第、句子,很明显地出本题正确答案,尤其是第个句子中的“accurately”词。选项D中的表达“可预先决定判断的准确性”,此外,此选项中的“accuracy”为“accurately”的同词异形,故此项为正确答案。选项A表达“依形势紧急性而定”错在,本文并没有出现类似信息;选项B“证明大脑反映的复杂性”,也是;选项C“取决于评估的重要性”,也与原文不符,故排除。

.【答案】[A]canbeassociative

【解析】细节题。题干问的是“我们对于快餐商标的反应速度表明决定是_____样的”,由题干的“st-foodlogo”我们可以定位到第段。第段说处理人际关系问题时人们会仓促决定,第段开头就说了,让人做出仓促决定的刺激因素不仅限于人际关系范围内。紧接着句说人们对快餐商标的反应速度比般阅读速度快。下句阐述了原因:因为人们无意识地(unconsciously)将“快餐”与“速度”和“心急”联系在起,并将这些冲动付诸行动。A说决定是有联系性的,正确,因为人们将“快餐”与“速度”,“心急”联系在了起。B说决定是无意识的,与原文意思相反,错。C说决定是的,原文未提及,排除。D说决定是不冲动的,与原文意思相悖,故排除。

.【答案】[C]thinkbeforeweact

【解析】细节题。先看题干说“为了逆转仓促决定所带来的影响,我们可以做_____”,根据题干定位到第段。第段通过两个例子说明我们应该怎样克服负面影响,第个例子表示“如果我们会对消费产品或者房产选择做出“过度反应”,我们可以在购买之前先思考会儿”,由此可说明我们应该在行动之前先思考来消除负面影响,因此选择答案C。其他选项:A项“相信我们的第印象”;B项“按照人们通常所做的去做”;D项“征求专家意见”均不符题意。

.【答案】[D]adequateinformation

【解析】细节题。题干问的是“JohnGottman认为可靠的快速反映是基于_____的。”由题干JohnGottman定位到全文倒数第段。其中第句:JohnGottman,themarriageexpert,themarriageexpert,explainsthatwequickly”thinslice”informationreliablyonlyafterwegoundsuchsnapreactionsin”thicksliced”long-termstudy.婚姻专家约翰.古德曼解释说,我们快速反应的信息的可靠性是建立在这样的快速反应的行为是以长期的研究为基础而做出的快速反应行为。其中gound是题干中baseon的同意置换,long-termstudy长期的研究与D选项adequateinformation相互呼应。由此可判断出[D]adequateinformation(足够的信息)是本题正解。该段第句话是WhenDr,Gottmanreallywantstoassesswhetheracouplewillstaytogether,heinvitesthemtohisislandretreatforamuchlongereveluation,twodays,nottwoseconds.当古德曼士想去评估对夫妻是否应该继续在起时,他会邀请他们到他的岛上进行个更为长期的调查,是两天而不是两秒。第句是对第句的举例说明,更加验证此选项。

.【答案】[C]optimistic

【解析】态度题。根据题题干reversingthehigh-speedtrend是全文的最后句,所以解此题可先定位到全文的最后段。最后段最后两句:Althoughtechnologymightchangethewaywereact,ithasn’tchangedournature.Westillhavetheimaginativecapacitytoriseabovetemptationandreversethehigh-speedtrend.译为:尽管技术可能改变我们反应的方式,但是它并没有改变我们的本性。我们仍然有能力去克服并扭转这种高速度的趋势。由此我们可以看出作者的态度常确定的,因此B选项uncertain(不确定)首先排除;Westillhavetheimaginativecapacity…表面作者对于我们的能力是有信心的。因此[C]optimistic(乐观的)是正解。A选项tolerant(的)、D选项doubtful(怀疑的)在原文中没有体现,属于的选项。

Text

.【答案】Bmenhavethefinalsay

【解析】根据题干corporateworkplace定位到第段。首句就说欧洲性别不平等,inparticular进步指出corporateworkplace,说明工作中性别尤其不平等。紧接着说欧洲高管职位remainoverwhelminglymale,说明以男性为主导。Indeed进步解释,指出性在欧洲董事会只占有%的席位。所以,B选项是基于首段信息给出的推论。A项womentakethelead和D项seniormanagementismily-friendly都与原文相反;C选项是对文章overwhelm这个词出的干扰项。

.【答案】Aareflectionofgenderbalance

【解析】根据题干,定位到第段首句,intendedlegislation是对isnowconsideringlegislation的同义改写。该句意思为“欧洲国家现在考虑立法来董事让妇的比例达到%”,因此立法是为了保持性别的平衡。B选项的reluctant是对第段的Reding’sreluctance出的干扰项,并不是说EuropeanUnion的立法。C选项aresponsetoReding’scall不正确,Reding召的是voluntaryaction,D也是干扰项,而真正的立法缘由是对genderbalance的反思,所以A项正确,也是文章中心的反映。

.【答案】Agettopbusinesspositions

【解析】定位至第段,Reding说自己不喜欢quotas,后面出现了but,他真正的观点在but之后,他说他喜欢quotas所做的事情,即getaction,后面的冒是对getaction的解释。核心的答案在aresultseeninFranceandothercoutrieswithlegallybindingprovisionsonplacingwomenintopbusinesspositions。aresult是前面内容的同位语,进步补充说明,所以选A。B项seethroughtheglassceiling是对原文breakthroughtheglassceiling的望文生义,属于肤浅选项,也和原文意思不符。C和D选项属于。

.【答案】Dapproval

【解析】本题问的是作者对Reding的呼吁的态度。Reding的appeal最早出现在第段,即呼吁在董事会中有%的性,以实现性别均衡。而第段再次提到Reding的观点即“他自己也不喜欢quotas,但是quotas本身确实起到了作用”;接着作者在第段给出了自己的观点,先是说可以理解Reding,自己本身也不喜欢quotas,但是“既然现在meritocraticideal(精英管理的理想)有障碍,确实需要种强制的手段,即强制设定男比例。”所以可以看出作者是持“赞成”的态度。

.【答案】Csuitablepublicpolicies

【解析】题干中的womenenteringtopmanagementbecomeheadlines是对第段第句话whenwomendobreakthroughtothesummitofthecorporatepower的同义改写,becomeheadlines是对后面forexample所举的SherylSandberg的事例的概括。答案出现在第段开头。第段是提出种解决措施,“Ippropriatepubicchoiceswereinplacetohelpallwomen,...Sandbergwouldbenomorenewsworthy...”,这个句子是if虚拟条件句,是对未来的种美好展望,也是提出观点的种方式,意思是“如果有理的公共政策来帮助所有的性,Sandberg也就没有报道价值了”。所以正确答案是C,因为缺少“suitablepublicpolicies”。

PartB

.【答案】FPlanningiseverything

【解析】段落首句谈到“Impulsivespendingisn’tanoption,soplanyourwork’smenuinadvance...”,其表达的含义是:冲动消费不是个好的选择,所以提前计划你周的菜单,为你所需材料的具体数量做个购物清单。首句中出现了逻辑关联词so,而下文又没有出现明显转折,因此首句是本段的中心句。文章进而提及作者为此专门做个Excel表格,并且认为这样做不仅花钱少并且有助于均衡饮食。显然文章的中心在于首句谈到的“plan”,而中心不是选项B表达的“balanceyourdiet”,故答案为F。

.【答案】ESticktowhatyouneed

【解析】段落第句话中的代词“them”指代第句中的“supermarketsandtheiranonymity”。该句通过这指代顺接第句,表达了个否定的含义,即你不需要在小贩那里感到尴尬。紧接着第句用肯定的语气指出“ifyouplanproperly,you’llknowthatyouonlyneed...gofshinofbeef...”即如果你理的规划,你就会清楚知道你想要什么,比如你只需要克牛肉。作者通过语义上层层递进的方式指出了这段的中心:你需要什么就买什么,要对你所需要购买的东西的分量要。因此选项E为正确选项。

.【答案】GWastenot,wantnot

【解析】本段内容首先谈到“你可能骄傲的说冰箱里只有冷冻的青豆,但是这还不够”。这句话中虽然没有明显的转折词,但在语义上属于隐性转折,因此段落的重点应该在后面。第句提到“Mineisfilledwith...”,其中Mine等于myfreezer,通过指代顺接上句话。接着第句前半句指出“提前做好计划可以避免浪费”,后半句具体陈述了怎样避免浪费。其中“eliminatewastage”与选项G中的“wastenot”构成同义替换。虽然该句中出现了planning,但是本段的主要内容是谈到对于剩余的食物要尽可能充分利用,从而避免浪费。所以选项G谈到“不浪。


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